Zoology 504: Modeling Animal Landscapes syllabus

Warren Porter

wpporter@wisc.edu

207 Zoology Research Building

262-1719/262-0029

Lecture outline

Chapter 1.  Introduction: what kind of problems these models can address.  (Two lectures)

How to build mechanistic models.  A basic introduction to thermodynamics and five basic rules for defining any system and applying the five rules to heat, mass, and molar balances (the rest of the chapters).

Conduction without heat generation (Boards, hollow logs, hollow bumblebee nests): how to set up and solve a simple problem using calculus; how to find boundary conditions and use them to evaluate integration constants, the ‘real’ work in solving a problem. This also illustrates how important boundary conditions are and how they can modify the ‘general’ solution form of a problem, a situation commonly ignored in some important ecologically oriented models.

Conduction with internal heat generation of plane, cylindrical, spherical and ellipsoidal geometries (A termite mound, a weasel, a hibernating chipmunk, an ellipsoidal tuna).  More practice in setting up and solving simple problems; the tuna problem uses prior problem experience to guess a solution and test it for complex three-dimensional geometries - the only realistic way to easily solve analytically for a moderately complex geometry)

Convection principles, boundary layers, measurements, dimensionless numbers, empirical recipes for standard geometries, animal bodies and appendages (Fish in streams, frogs, lizards, spiders, birds, mice and elephants)

Chapter 6. Infrared radiation exchange; the nature of infrared radiation, basic laws, configuration factor algebra-how to determine radiant exchange between discrete surfaces such as butterfly wings and the body Butterflies in the shade on tree trunks vs. tall slender plant stalks (Is climate really behind the northerly migration of some species of butterfly populations in Europe over the last hundred years?)

Solar radiation.  Calculating solar radiation incident on the top of the atmosphere, on a horizontal surface on the ground, solar radiation on any sloping surface, configuration factors applied to diffuse solar radiation (Solar Radiation Exchange and Multiple Reflections between Surfaces,  such as butterfly wings reflecting or transmitting solar radiation to warm the body for flight.)

Mass transfer by convection and diffusion (gaseous and liquid water; oxygen; nutrients in the gut).  A frog on a moist substrate (Might climate change be affecting amphibian declines?) A lizard or turtle egg buried in soil (How do soil temperatures and moistures affect reptile distributions?) Frog skin and general lung exchange models, fish eggs of different sizes (species) ''buried'' in water  at different velocities and temperatures).

Modeling Transients - analytical and numerical methods.

Galapagos marine iguana heating and cooling rates due to different body sizes: impact on digestion.  Marine iguanas in Galapagos (why are marine iguanas of different body sizes on each of the islands in Galapagos, when they are all from essentially the same gene pool?)

Momentum transfer.  Basic fluid mechanics

Modeling microclimates: impacts on local heat transfer;

Chapter 12.  GIS extensions of local animal solutions.  The rare and endangered orange bellied parrots in Australia (How does climate, continental variation in topography, and vegetation types impact on parrot capacity for growth, reproduction, and survival potential?)

Appendix 1.  Allometry. Calculating animal surface areas and volumes.  To be completed.

Appendix 2. Modeling porous insulation from first principles.  Elk in Yellowstone (how does burning the forest affect their winter energetics?)

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